Technical Report on Chittagong Port

 

Geographical feature of Bangladesh

  • Bangladesh is a riverine country bounded by the Bay of Bengal in the south.
  • It is surrounded by India in the north and west and by Myanmar and India in the east.
  • Its land area is about 147,570 sq.km. and the territorial waters 12 nautical miles.
  • The economic zone of the country covers 200 nautical miles from the base line.
  • The entire coast line of the country is about 710 km.
  • Annual rainfall varies from 1,200 mm to 3,500 mm with 80 percent rainfall during monsoon.
  • Average maximum temperature is 34 degree C and minimum temperature is 8 degree C. Bangladesh is a deltaic region which is formed by the alluvial sediments borne by the rivers Ganges, Brahamaputra, Jamuna, and the Meghna.

 

Demographic Feature of Bangladesh

  • Area = 1,47,570 sqkm
  • Population = 127.5 million (1998)
  • Population growth rate = 1.76 (1998)
  • Child mortality rate = 98 per thousand
  • Education = 38.1% (1995)
  • GDP = 49,419 million us$ (1997)
  • GDP per capita = 340 us$ (1997)
  • Population density = 755 per sqkm (1991)

 

Economy

  • Agriculture plays a vital role in the national economy of Bangladesh.
  • The agricultural sector contributes by nearly 40% of the countries total GDP.

 

Main export commodities

  • The main export commodities of Bangladesh are jute, jute goods, tea, ready made garments (RMG), leather, frozen fish, shrimps and others.
  • More than 60% of the export share is now occupied by the RMG.

 

Main import commodities

  • The main import commodities of Bangladesh are food grains, sugar, fertilizers, cement, crude oil, petroleum,which are about 75% of the total tonnage.

 

Navigational facilities

  • Pilotage is compulsory for ocean going vessels.
  • The entrance to the river is constantly changing and no vessels are allowed to enter without pilot.
  • The propelling distance from the pilot ground at the outer anchorage to the main jetties is approximately 11 nautical miles.
  • The vessels having a maximum draft of 9.14 m and L.O.A 187.77 m can enter and berth at the jetties.
  • In the navigational channel there are three Bars namely the Outer Bar, the Inner Bar and the Gupta Bar located at a distance of 14.5 km, 13 km and 7.58 km respectively from the jetties.
  • The depths of water at these three bars primarily control permissible draft for navigation of the vessels inside the port.
  • The width of the navigational channel varies from place to place.
  • A minimum of 250 m channel width is maintained.
  • The pilot board is approximately 2 nautical miles seaward of the outer buoy.
  • The ship movements generally commence about 4 to 5 hours before the high water of the day.
  • The tides are semi-diurnal and the range varies from 1.5 to 4.8 at high water.
  • The tides are termed as A.M and P.M tide.

 

Jetties and moorings

1. General cargo berths

  • There are 13 general cargo berths / jetties provided with shore cranes and rail tracks, ranging in face length from 133 m to 193 m and total of 2, 131 m vessels up to 185.91m (L.O.A) and vessels with a maximum draft of 9.14 m may be berthed in these berths.

 

2. Container Berths ( Multipurpose Berths)

  • There are two berths of face a length of 450 m and a 40 m wide apron with rails for gantry cranes.
  • Three feeder vessels each 120 m long or two feeder vessels each 170 m long and one inland coaster can be berthed at the container berth a the same time.

 

3. Mooring Berths

  • Eight mooring berths for ships 170.67 m to 185.91m L.O.A and draft ranging from 6.00 m to 9.14 m are used for handling of edible oil.
  • One single Dolphin berth is used for discharging crude oil.

 

4. Lighter jetties

  • There are six lighter jetties of a length ranging from 70 m to 122 m.
  • Coaster and inland vessels for handling dry cargo and POL in bulk use these jetties.

 

5. Public sector jetties

  • These jetties are used for handling bulk cargo like wheat, cement clinkers, rock phosphates and urea fertilizer.
  • The handling responsibilities lie on the respective organizations who are controlling the jetties.

 

CARGO STORAGE SPACE

1. For general break bulk cargoes

  • In protected area (Covered space)

 

Transit shed (10 nos)

73,803 sq. m

Ware houses (8 nos)

30,515 sq. m

Baggage shed

1,789 sq. m

Car shed

2,259 sq. m

Hazardous godown

293 sq. m

Total

108,659 sq. m

 

  • Open space for storage.

 

R.C.C pavement

173,763 sq. m

Brick pavement -

5,639 sq. m

Total

179,402 sq. m

 

  • Out side protected area

 

Ware houses (16nos)

35,839 sq. m

Open dump

200,000 sq. m

 

 

B. For containers

  • At general cargo berth area

 

Holding-capacity

4885 TEUs

Open yard

110,443 sq. m

C.F.S(Transit shed 6 nos & ware house & nos)

70,234 sq. m

Railway container terminal

123 meter.

Reefer points

90 (440 volts)

18 (220 volts)

 

  • At container terminal (MPB)

 

Container storage yard

150,000 sq. m

C.F.S

12,732 sq. m

Railway container siding

550 meter

Reefer plugs

210 (415volts)

Container holding capacity

4,062 TEUs

Stand by Generator

2 nos

Water reservoir

140,000 gallons

Fire brigade

One unit

 

 

Clearance of cargo from the port

The port is connected with the hinterland by railways, the road networks and the inland waterways through the sea (Bay of Bengal).

The dry cargoes from the port are cleared by three modes of transport, viz. rail, road and river, which are approximately 10%, 75% & 15% respectively of the total cargo forwarded to the hinterland.

 

Existing Cargo Handling Equipment

I. For general break bulk cargoes

 

Types of equipment

Number

Capacity (Tons)

Shore crane

12
20

3
2

Mobile crane

11
8
2

6
10-20
30

Fork lift truck

49

3-5

Trailers

37
15

6
25

Tractors

18
5

6
25

 

Source: CPA year book / 1993-95

 

II. For containers

 

Types of equipment

Number

Capacity (Tons)

Forklift truck

5
2
9
5

38-42
32 – 35
25 –28
16

Straddle carrier

9

35

Tractor

25

50

Low mast forklift

23

50

Roll trailers

12

20 ft long

Trailer

20 12

20 ft long 40 ft long

 

Source: CPA year book / 1993-95

 

III. vessels and craft

 

Name

Number

Name

Number

Tug boat

6

Water boat

3

Pilot vessel

5

Buffer barge

2

Patrol boat

2

Mooring Launch

6

Pontoon barge Deck loading barge

13 6

Service boat

1

Anchoring and Buoy lifting vessel

2

Survey boat

10

 

One Suction Hooper Dredger with Hooper capacity of 2,500 cu.m
Source: CPA year book / 1993-95

 

Cargo handling system in Chittagong port

Two types of cargo handling systems exist in the port.

  1. Fforklift trucks fitted with top lift spreaders, which are used in the yards located in the general cargo berth (GCB) areas, while the transfer of containers between the quay side and the yards are done by tractor-trailers.
  2. Straddle carriers are the main handling equipment in the multipurpose berth terminal for both yard operation and transfer of containers between quay side and yards.

The shipping agents declare the ship’s expected arrival date and Port Authority’s berthing committee allots berths subjected to availability.

Discharge permission of containers is required and has to be obtained from the container terminal office by submitting manifest and other required papers from the Customs and Naval Authority.

Discharging permission is then handed over to the nominated stevedores of the local ship operator.

The MPB container terminal office allocates equipment considering berthing of vessel.

In the container terminal (MPB) containers are loaded and unloaded to and from the vessel by the vessel’s .

After completion of the customs formalities cargoes from the FCL containers are taken by the consignee and empty containers are handed over to the Port Authority.

The container discharge, loading and carrying operation are done by the stevedores appointed by the shipping agent for loading / discharging from the vessel and subsequently appointed by the Port Authority for carrying under vessel’s hook to storage yards and vice versa. The Port Authority takes responsibility for the containers and cargoes from the carrier as received as per tally sheet.

 

International container routes around Bangladesh

The regular routes of container ships serving Bangladesh, Pakistan and India are to and from the Far-East Asia, the U.S.A, Europe, the Mediterranean, the Middle East, Australia and Africa.

The average size container vessels serving the Far-East Asia/North America and the Far-East Asia/Europe routes are 2500 TEUs to 3000 TEUs(Twenty Feet Equivalent Unit).

 

Problems in cargo handling activities

  • The growth in container traffic in Chittagong Port has been at much higher rate than anticipated.
  • The existing facilities to handle container traffic are not adequate enough to cope with the increasing demand for container handling.
  • The port has been facing a lot of problems in efficient handling and management of container traffic, such as shortage of yard spaces, lack of cargo handling equipment due to additional and replacements required, poor facilities for the hinterland transportation of containers, high dwell time of cargoes and congestion in the port area.
  • As a result, the port has been facing a lot of problems in efficient handling and management of container traffic, such as shortage of yard spaces, lack of cargo handling equipment due to additional and replacements required, poor facilities for the hinterland transportation of containers, high dwell time of cargoes and congestion in the port area.
  • The infra-structural and institutional facilities have not been developed for the transport of containers to inland destinations or for faster clearance of containers/cargoes out of the port.
  • The 60% of the total container throughput per annum of Chittagong Port is bound for the Dhaka area which is a large commercial and industrial center of Bangladesh.
  • Due to limited facilities only about 10% of the containers could be transported by railways to Dhaka ICD.
  • Containers are to spend a long time in the port after discharging from a vessel.
  • About 90% of containers stop their journey at the port and cargoes have to be loaded into and offloaded from containers, and delivered and received in break bulk form in the port area.
  • This causes high dwell time of cargoes / containers which creates congestion and re-handling of containers in the port.
  • The effectiveness of smooth container handling has been greatly reduced.
  • Higher requirements for yard areas for stuffing and unstuffing of containers for cargo delivery/receipt, More equipment services for handling/re-handling of containers are required.
  • Movement of trucks, labor and smaller cargo handling equipment causes chaos and indiscipline in the container yards.
  • Slow down of container movements and reduction of storage capacity and productivity.
  • The available container handling equipment is not sufficient enough in response to the requirements.
  • The economic life of a portion of the equipment has already expired and needs replacement.
  • Ship to shore gantry cranes has not been installed.
  • Very difficult to establish co-ordination between these stevedoring companies in order to have efficient utilization of available port facilities.
  • The computer system presently in use is not adequate for proper container control and management.
  • The present radio telecommunications system is also insufficient to meet the requirements.

 

Strength and weakness of Chittagong port

Strength:

  • The port is a self financing organization.
  • It has no competitors.
  • It has a good geographical location and land is available for future expansions.
  • It has large hinterland and steady cargo growth.
  • Several industrial units and commercial centers have established themselves around the port.
  • There is a good possibility for transit trade with neighboring countries.

 

Weakness:

  • The port has a limited draft of 9.14 meter for which entrance of vessels over 20,000 dwt is restricted.
  • Because of lack of infrastructure facilities, a long time is required for the transportation of containerized cargoes to its
  • hinterland destinations.
  • Only about 10% of the containerized cargoes can be transported by railways to Dhaka ICD.
  • Still no containers are transported by roads and inland waterways to the other parts of the country.

 

Vessels handled and Turn around time in Chittagong Port

 

Year

No of vessels

No of Tankers

Total

Turn around
time (days)

1990-91

873

96

969

6.83

1991-92

897

106

1003

5.32

1992-93

953

105

1058

5.10

1993-94

949

121

1070

4.42

1994-95

1083

134

1172

4.88

 

Source: CPA year book / 1993-95

 

Performance indicators in Chittagong Port during 1992-93 to 1994-95

 

Indicators

1992-93

1993-94

1994-95

Productivity per gang hour Container (Nos)
General cargo (tons)

8.65
1497

903
17.48

9.43
16.16

Equipment availability (%)

18.57

62.47

49.84

Waiting time of ships (Days)

0.35

0.35

0.49

Service time of ships (Days)

3.30

3.19

3.59

Berth occupancies (%)

81.72

18.49

84.53

 

Source: CPA over view / 1995

 

Generation

Length (in)

Beam (m)

Draft (m)

Speed (Knots)

Capacity
(TEUs)

1st – 1960-70

140-200

23-27

9.2

16

200-1000

2nd – 1970-80

210-250

27-32

10

23

1500-2500

3rd-1980-1988

230-270

32.1

11.6-12.5

23

2500-3500

4th-1988-1995

280-300

41-3

11.6-12.8

23

4000-5000